Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

PubMedID: 10552441

Lin S, Mullin CA. Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47(3):1223-9.
Adult Diabroticites including western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, consume pollen of corn, squash, sunflower, and other species. Short-chain neutral amino acids in methanol-water extracts of pollen have been previously identified in our laboratory as strong phagostimulants for Diabrotica. Bioassay-driven fractionation was used to characterize the interacting lipid and midpolarity phagostimulants for adult WCR in Giant Gray Stripe sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., pollen. Lipids rich in omega3-linolenic acid including triglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and phosphatidylcholines were highly phagostimulatory. Other important phagostimulatory components included a hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine amide, N(1),N(5),N(10)-tri[(E)-p-coumaroyl]spermidine, and a flavonol, quercetin beta-3-O-glucoside. The structural characteristics of these phagoactive compounds and their role in the pollinivory specialization of rootworm beetles are discussed.