Interplay between chromatin modifications and paused RNA polymerase II in dynamic transition between stalled and activated genes.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

PubMedID: 22765520

Liu S, Tao Y. Interplay between chromatin modifications and paused RNA polymerase II in dynamic transition between stalled and activated genes. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2013;88(1):40-8.
The dynamic interplay between chromatin modification (e.g. DNA methylation) and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) plays a critical role in gene transcription during stem cell development, establishment, and maintenance and in the cellular response to extracellular stimuli such as those that cause DNA damage. Pol II is recruited to the promoter-proximal regions of numerous inactive genes at high conentrations in a process called Pol II stalling. This is a key process prior to gene activation and it involves many interacting factors. Chromatin modification including nucleosome position is dependent on chromatin structure. Stalled genes create a particular structural conformation of chromatin, which acts as a target for chromatin modification. In this way, Pol II stalling may be regarded as a type of signal for chromatin modification in these regions during the dynamic transition between stalled and activated genes.