Xanthine oxidase and lens oxidative stress markers in diabetic and senile cataract patients.

Journal of diabetes and its complications

PubMedID: 23142692

Miric DJ, Kisic BB, Zoric LD, Mitic RV, Miric BM, Dragojevic IM. Xanthine oxidase and lens oxidative stress markers in diabetic and senile cataract patients. J Diabetes Complicat. 2013;27(2):171-6.
Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a prooxidant enzyme possibly implicated in diabetic lens injury and genesis of senile cataract (SC). We evaluated the impact of diabetes on XOD activity and its relationships with lens oxidative stress markers in patients operated on for SC. Serum and lens XOD activities, lens malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in 62 non-diabetic and 29 diabetic patients operated on for SC. Lens XOD, SOD, GPx and GSH levels were gradually declining, while MDA and serum XOD were increasing with patient's age. Lens XOD activity was positively correlated with conjugated dienes concentration (rho=0.316; p=0.003) while being inversely correlated with age (rho=-0.371; p<0.001), indicating that low ocular expression of XOD could be related to lower intensity of oxidative stress and delayed occurrence of SC. When samples were adjusted for confounding factors, serum XOD (p<0.001), lens XOD (p=0.003) and conjugated dienes (p=0.002) were significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic group. Lens SOD and GPx were moderately increased while MDA and GSH were unchanged in diabetic, compared with non-diabetic SC group. Blood HbA1C concentration was positively correlated with lens XOD (rho=0.346; p<0.001) as well as serum XOD activity (rho=0.485; p<0.001). These results suggest that poor glycemic control may upregulate systemic and ocular XOD activities contributing to lens oxidative stress and possibly to earlier onset of cataract.