Health care costs in the elderly in Germany: an analysis applying Andersen's behavioral model of health care utilization.

BMC health services research

PubMedID: 24524754

Heider D, Matschinger H, Müller H, Saum KU, Quinzler R, Haefeli WE, Wild B, Lehnert T, Brenner H, König HH. Health care costs in the elderly in Germany: an analysis applying Andersen's behavioral model of health care utilization. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14(1):71.
BACKGROUND
To analyze the association of health care costs with predisposing, enabling, and need factors, as defined by Andersen's behavioral model of health care utilization, in the German elderly population.

METHODS
Using a cross-sectional design, cost data of 3,124 participants aged 57-84 years in the 8-year-follow-up of the ESTHER cohort study were analyzed. Health care utilization in a 3-month period was assessed retrospectively through an interview conducted by trained study physicians at respondents' homes. Unit costs were applied to calculate health care costs from the societal perspective. Socio-demographic and health-related variables were categorized as predisposing, enabling, or need factors as defined by the Andersen model. Multimorbidity was measured by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Mental health status was measured by the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS) score. Sector-specific costs were analyzed by means of multiple Tobit regression models.

RESULTS
Mean total costs per respondent were 889 [euro sign] for the 3-month period. The CIRS-G score and the SF-12 MCS score representing the need factor in the Andersen model were consistently associated with total, inpatient, outpatient and nursing costs. Among the predisposing factors, age was positively associated with outpatient costs, nursing costs, and total costs, and the BMI was associated with outpatient costs.

CONCLUSIONS
Multimorbidity and mental health status, both reflecting the need factor in the Andersen model, were the dominant predictors of health care costs. Predisposing and enabling factors had comparatively little impact on health care costs, possibly due to the characteristics of the German social health insurance system. Overall, the variables used in the Andersen model explained only little of the total variance in health care costs.