Long-term Outcomes of Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Clinically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of a Single-institution Series with a Minimum Follow-up of 5 Years.

European Urology (Platinum)

PubMedID: 24571959

Suardi N, Gandaglia G, Gallina A, Di Trapani E, Scattoni V, Vizziello D, Cucchiara V, Bertini R, Colombo R, Picchio M, Giovacchini G, Montorsi F, Briganti A. Long-term Outcomes of Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Clinically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of a Single-institution Series with a Minimum Follow-up of 5 Years. Eur Urol. 2014;.
BACKGROUND
Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with lymph node recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) are usually managed with androgen-deprivation therapy. Despite the absence of prospective randomized studies, salvage lymph node dissection (LND) has been proposed as an alternative treatment option.

OBJECTIVE
To examine long-term outcomes of salvage LND in patients with nodal recurrent PCa documented by 11C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Overall, 59 patients affected by biochemical recurrence (BCR) with 11C-choline PET/CT scan with pathologic activity treated between 2002 and 2008 were included.

INTERVENTION
Pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage LND.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES
Biochemical response (BR) was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <0.2 ng/ml at 40 d after surgery. BCR for those who achieved BR was defined as a PSA >0.2 ng/ml. Clinical recurrence (CR) was defined as a positive PET/CT scan after salvage LND in the presence of a rising PSA. Kaplan-Meier curves assessed time to BCR, CR, and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Cox regression analyses were fitted to assess predictors of CR.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS
Median follow-up after salvage LND was 81.1 mo. Overall, 35 patients (59.3%) achieved BR. The 8-yr BCR-free survival rate in patients with complete BR was 23%. Overall, the 8-yr CR- and CSM-free survival rates were 38% and 81%, respectively. In multivariable analyses evaluating preoperative variables, PSA at salvage LND represented the only predictor of CR (p=0.03). When postoperative variables were considered, the number of positive nodes and BR were significantly associated with the risk of CR (all p = 0.04). Our study is limited by the lack of a control group.

CONCLUSIONS
Salvage LND may represent a therapeutic option for patients with BCR after RP and nodal pathologic uptake at 11C-choline PET/CT scan. Although most patients progressed to BCR after salvage LND, roughly 40% of them experienced CR-free survival.

PATIENT SUMMARY
Salvage lymph node dissection may represent a therapeutic option for selected patients with nodal recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Roughly 40% of men did not show any further clinical recurrence at long-term follow-up after surgery.