3D in vitro cell culture models of tube formation.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology

PubMedID: 24613912

Zegers MM. 3D in vitro cell culture models of tube formation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;.
Building the complex architecture of tubular organs is a highly dynamic process that involves cell migration, polarization, shape changes, adhesion to neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix, physicochemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix and reciprocal signaling with the mesenchyme. Understanding these processes in vivo has been challenging as they take place over extended time periods deep within the developing organism. Here, I will discuss 3D in vitro models that have been crucial to understand many of the molecular and cellular mechanisms and key concepts underlying branching morphogenesis in vivo.