The effect of exposure to chlorfenvinphos on lipid metabolism and apoptotic and necrotic cells death in the brain of rats.

Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie

PubMedID: 22498023

Roszczenko A, Rogalska J, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Brzóska MM. The effect of exposure to chlorfenvinphos on lipid metabolism and apoptotic and necrotic cells death in the brain of rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013;65(5):531-9.
This study investigated the influence of chlorfenvinphos (0.3 mg/kg bw/24 h corresponding to 0.02 LD50; orally by gastric gavage for 14 and 28 days) on lipid metabolism, and apoptotic and necrotic cells death in the brain of rats as the possible mechanism of neurotoxic action of organophosphate (OP) pesticides at low exposure. Total cholesterol (TCh), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined and apoptotic, necrotic, and living cells were quantified in the brain. Moreover, the serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were assayed as biomarkers of neurotoxicity. The treatment with chlorfenvinphos increased (duration dependently) the concentrations of TCh and TG and the ratio of TCh/PL, and decreased PL concentration. The prevalence of apoptotic and necrotic cells increased and that of the living brain cells depressed (by 10%) already after 14 days of the exposure. The brain activities of AChE and BChE decreased by 12% and 15%, and by 18% and 25% after 14 and 28 days, respectively, whereas the serum activities of these enzymes were inhibited (by 24% and 18%, respectively) only after the longer treatment. The changes in lipid metabolism and distribution of the living, apoptotic, and necrotic brain cells correlated with AChE and BChE activities in the serum and brain. The results show that chlorfenvinphos may disturb lipid metabolism and induce apoptosis and necrosis in the brain even at the exposure not affecting the serum activities of cholinesterases, and causing only moderate inhibition of their brain activities. Based on the findings it can be concluded that low repeated exposure to OP pesticides may influence the nervous system through disrupting the lipid profile of the nervous tissue and decreasing the number of the nervous cells.