[Dermatophytic disease: exuberant hyperkeratosis with cutaneous horns].

Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie

PubMedID: 9835960

Boudghène-Stambouli O, Mérad-Boudia A. [Dermatophytic disease: exuberant hyperkeratosis with cutaneous horns]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1998;125(10):705-7.
BACKGROUND
Dermatophytic disease is a chronic dermatophytosis involving the skin and viscera and caused by benign dermatophytes which cross the skin barrier. We present a case presenting previously unreported giant cutaneous horns.

CASE REPORT
A male Algerian patient aged 29 years consulted for chronic skin disease which had progressed for 2 years. Manifestations included warts, papulonodules, eczematiform lesions, lichenifications, alopecia, onyxis, multiple node enlargement and giant cutaneous horns on the plantar aspect of the feet making walking difficult. The patient's kinhood included 10 members and the patient's parents were first cousins; no other family member had a similar disease state. Laboratory findings included eosinophilia (11%, 550 cells/mm3), an inflammatory syndrome, and normal phosphorus and calcium levels despite demineralization of the hands and feet. The tuberculin interdermal reaction was positive but the trichophytine interdermal reaction was negative. Trichophyton violaceum was found in all mycological samples from skin and nails. The histology examination of skin biopsies revealed acanthosis, considerable hyperkeratosis, and myceleal filaments invading the horny layer, the sweat glands and hair follicles. Abscesses and granulomas were also seen in the superficial dermis. Oral griseofulvin 1 g per day and topical applications with ketoconazole gave clear improvement.

DISCUSSION
Dermatophytic disease is a chronic dermatophytosis observed mainly in North Africa. The locally high rate of consanguinous marriages would suggest autosomal recessive inheritance of a genetic anomaly possibly associated with deficient cellular immunity. The lesions are polymorphous and develop progressively, probably due to diminished cellular immunity. This case with giant cutaneous horns would be a new variant. Antifungals can provide definitive cure. The pathogenesis of this severe dermatophytosis remains to be established.