Less-invasive coronary artery bypass grafting: different techniques and approaches.

European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery

PubMedID: 9814786

Diegeler A, Falk V, Krähling K, Matin M, Walther T, Autschbach R, Battelini R, Mohr FW. Less-invasive coronary artery bypass grafting: different techniques and approaches. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1998;14 Suppl 1S13-9.
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to compare four different techniques for less-invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in terms of feasibility as well as in terms of the intra- and postoperative course.

METHODS
One hundred and fourteen patients were divided into four groups, according to the surgical technique. Group I: minithoracotomy, internal thoracic artery (ITA) harvesting and anastomosis under direct vision using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the fibrillating heart (n = 31). Group II: sternotomy and beating heart without CPB (n = 13). Group III: MIDCAB with CPB and cardioplegic cardiac arrest using endo-aortic balloon-occlusion, Port Access system (n = 9). Group IV: MIDCAB on the beating heart without CPB (n = 61). In total, 104 single and ten double graft procedures were performed using the radial artery T-graft technique in seven cases (groups III and IV).

RESULTS
Harvesting of the ITA graft took 41+/-16.2 min in group I and could be reduced to 31+/-8.3 min in group IV by the use of a specially-designed retractor. Complications were: death (n = 1, group I), myocardial infarction, (n = 1, group I), early occlusion of the graft (n = 1, group IV), early stenosis of the anastomosis (n = 2, groups I and IV), late stenosis of the anastomosis (n = 1, group IV), thrombosis of the femoral vein (n = 1, group III). Postoperative ventilation, ICU and hospital stay were similar among groups.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on our results, the following strategy has been developed: MIDCAB without CPB is the preferred technique for one-vessel graft procedures to the left anterior descendens (LAD) or RCA. The Port Access system (with CPB) is reserved as a second option for young patients requiring multiple-vessel grafting to the left coronary circulation (LAD/CX) and as a backup to avoid conversion. Sternotomy and an off-pump technique is used for single-vessel or multiple-vessel graft procedures in selected patients (emergency procedure, acute myocardial infarction, in the very obese).