Biopsy in a patient with PMP22 exon 2 mutation recapitulates pathology of Trembler-J mouse.

Neuromuscular disorders : NMD

PubMedID: 23313019

Madrid RE, Lofgren A, Baets J, Timmerman V. Biopsy in a patient with PMP22 exon 2 mutation recapitulates pathology of Trembler-J mouse. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013;23(4):345-8.
We describe a patient with a longstanding history of hypertrophic neuropathy of Dejerine-Sottas type, ultimately diagnosed with CMT1E disease due to a new p.Leu18Arg missense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of the PMP22 gene. The patient never walked independently and was wheelchair bound by age 18 years. Her parents and son were unaffected. Her peroneal muscular atrophy syndrome presented with scoliosis, bilateral hearing loss, pes planus, distal sensory loss and generalized areflexia. A nerve biopsy at age 26 years showed nerve hypertrophy, myelin uncompaction, defects in mesaxon formation, Schwann cells with irregular outline, axons incompletely surrounded by Schwann cell processes and very short internodes interspersed with denuded axons. Large, mostly denervated, onion bulb formations were also prominent. These findings indicate that demyelination continues undeterred in the advanced stages of the disease and is followed by remyelination attempts that recapitulate the early defects in Schwann cell/axon interaction seen in the Trembler-J mouse, which carries a mutation in the same transmembrane domain.