Supplementing the Neurosurgical Virtuoso: Evolution of Automation from Mythology to Operating Room Adjunct.

World Neurosurgery

PubMedID: 24631913

Attenello F, Lee B, Yu C, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Supplementing the Neurosurgical Virtuoso: Evolution of Automation from Mythology to Operating Room Adjunct. World Neurosurg. 2014;81(5-6):719-29.
A central concept of scientific advancement in the medical and surgical fields is the incorporation of successful emerging ideas and technologies throughout the scope of human endeavors. The field of automation and robotics is a pivotal representation of this concept. Arising in the mythology of Homer in the 4(th) century BC, the concept of automation and robotics grew exponentially over the millennia to provide the substrate for a paradigm shift in the current and future practice of neurosurgery. We trace the growth of this field from the seminal concepts of Homer and Aristotle to early incorporation into neurosurgical practice. Resulting changes provide drastic and welcome advances in areas of visualization, haptics, acoustics, dexterity, tremor reduction, motion scaling and surgical precision.