Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94.

Epidemiology and infection

PubMedID: 9042035

Brocchi E, Zhang G, Knowles NJ, Wilsden G, McCauley JW, Marquardt O, Ohlinger VF, De Simone F. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;118(1):51-61.
Viruses from the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in Europe have been isolated and characterized by antigenic and genetic methods to examine the likely epidemiological origins of the disease. Antigenic analysis was performed on 77 SVD viruses (SVDV) isolated in Europe between 1966 and 1994 using two panels of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in a trapping ELISA. Genetic analysis of 33 of the SVD viruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ID (VP1) coding region was also performed. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with each other and with three other previously published SVDV sequences revealed four distinct groups which correlated exactly with the results of the pattern of reactivity with MAbs. The first group consisted solely of the earliest SVD virus isolated (ITL/1/66) while the second group comprised viruses present in Europe and Japan between 1972 and 1981. The third group consisted of viruses isolated from outbreaks of SVD in Italy between December 1988 and June 1992. Viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from Romania, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain formed a fourth group. The genetic and antigenic similarity of the most recent virus isolates from Western Europe to a virus isolated in Romania 5 years previously suggests that the possible origin of the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease in Western Europe was in Eastern Europe.