Interleukin (IL)-1beta increases glucose uptake and induces glycolysis in aerobically cultured rat ovarian cells: evidence that IL-1beta may mediate the gonadotropin-induced midcycle metabolic shift.

Endocrinology

PubMedID: 9202204

Ben-Shlomo I, Kol S, Roeder LM, Resnick CE, Hurwitz A, Payne DW, Adashi EY. Interleukin (IL)-1beta increases glucose uptake and induces glycolysis in aerobically cultured rat ovarian cells: evidence that IL-1beta may mediate the gonadotropin-induced midcycle metabolic shift. Endocrinology. 1997;138(7):2680-8.
This communication explores the possibility that interleukin (IL)-1beta, a putative intermediary in the ovulatory process, may take part in the gonadotropin-driven midcycle diversion of ovarian carbohydrate metabolism toward glycolysis. We examined the effect of treatment with IL-1beta on glucose metabolism in aerobically cultured whole ovarian dispersates from immature rats. Treatment with IL-1beta increased cellular glucose consumption/uptake, stimulated extracellular lactate accumulation and media acidification, and decreased extracellular pyruvate accumulation in a receptor-mediated, time-, dose- and cell density-dependent manner. Endogenous IL-1beta-like bioactivity was shown to mediate the ability of gonadotropins to exert these same metabolic effects. The IL-1beta effect was also (1) apparent over a broad range of glucose concentrations, inclusive of the putative physiological window; (2) relatively specific, because tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin were inactive; (3) contingent upon cell-cell cooperation (4) and reliant on de novo protein synthesis. Comparison of the molar ratios of lactate accumulation to glucose consumption in IL-1beta-replete vs. IL-1beta-deplete cultures suggests that IL-beta promotes the conversion of all available glucose to lactate but that other substrates for lactate production may also exist. However, no lactate was generated by cells grown under glucose-free conditions. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-1beta may act as a metabolic hormone in the ovary. Subject to the limitations of the in vitro paradigm, our data also suggest that IL-1beta may mediate the gonadotropin-associated midcycle shift in ovarian carbohydrate metabolism. By converting the somatic ovarian cells into a glucose-consuming glycolytic machinery, IL-1beta may establish glycolysis as the main energy source of the relatively hypoxic preovulatory follicle and the resultant cumulus-oocyte complex. The consequent oxygen sparing may conserve the limited supply of oxygen needed for vital biosynthetic processes such as steroidogenesis. This adaptational response may also provide the glycolytically incompetent oocyte with the obligatory tricarboxylic cycle precursors it depends on to meet the increased energy demands imposed upon it by the resumption of meiosis.