Cefpirome. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy in the treatment of severe nosocomial infections and febrile neutropenia.

Drugs

PubMedID: 9211085

Wiseman LR, Lamb HM. Cefpirome. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy in the treatment of severe nosocomial infections and febrile neutropenia. Drugs. 1997;54(1):117-40.
Cefpirome is an injectable extended-spectrum or 'fourth generation' cephalosporin. Its antibacterial activity encompasses many of the pathogens involved in hospital-acquired infections such as Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and viridans group streptococci. Cefpirome also has in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae regardless of penicillin susceptibility. It is stable against most plasmid- and chromosome-mediated beta-lactamases, with the exception of the extended-spectrum plasmid-mediated SHV enzymes. Intravenous cefpirome 2g twice daily has shown clinical efficacy comparable to that of ceftazidime 2g 3 times daily in the treatment of hospitalised patients with moderate to severe infections. Clinical response and bacteriological eradication rates were similar in patients with severe pneumonia or septicaemia treated with either cefpirome or ceftazidime. Cefpirome appeared more effective than ceftazidime in the eradication of bacteria in patients with febrile neutropenia in 1 study; however, clinical response rates were similar in the 2 treatment groups. The tolerability of cefpirome appears similar to that of ceftazidime and other third generation cephalosporins, diarrhoea being the most frequently observed event. Thus, cefpirome is likely to be a valuable extended-spectrum agent for the treatment of severe infections. Cefpirome offers improved coverage against some Gram-positive pathogens and Enterobacteriaceae producing class I beta-lactamases compared with the third generation cephalosporins, although this has yet to be demonstrated in clinical trials.