In vivo transfer of engineered macrophages into the glomerulus: endogenous TGF-beta-mediated defense against macrophage-induced glomerular cell activation.

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

PubMedID: 9278341

Sütö TS, Fine LG, Shimizu F, Kitamura M. In vivo transfer of engineered macrophages into the glomerulus: endogenous TGF-beta-mediated defense against macrophage-induced glomerular cell activation. J Immunol. 1997;159(5):2476-83.
Communication between resident glomerular cells and infiltrating macrophages plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Using matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as an indicator molecule, we examined the interaction between mesangial cells and macrophages. Mesangial cells cocultured with activated macrophages or exposed to macrophage-conditioned media produced abundant MMP-9. We identified the stimulator secreted by macrophages as IL-1 because mesangial cells overexpressing IL-1 receptor antagonist protein showed a blunted expression of MMP-9 in response to the macrophage-conditioned medium. In contrast, culture supernatants of mesangial cells inhibited MMP-9 production by macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibitor was identified to be TGF-beta1, since neutralization of TGF-beta1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of the mesangial cell-conditioned medium. To investigate whether activated macrophages induce glomerular MMP-9 expression, and if so, how endogenous TGF-beta1 modulates the induction, stimulated reporter macrophages were transferred into normal rat glomeruli or glomeruli in the regeneration phase of acute anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis. In the normal glomeruli, MMP-9 expression was up-regulated in resident cells after the transfer of activated macrophages. This induction was substantially repressed in the regenerating glomeruli that produced active TGF-beta1. These results point to potential mechanisms involved in glomerular control of MMP-9. Based upon the in vitro evidence, TGF-beta1 was identified as an endogenous "defender" that attenuates certain actions of infiltrating macrophages in the glomerulus.