New insights into retinoid signaling in cardiac development and physiology.

Trends in cardiovascular medicine

PubMedID: 21235904

Smith SM, Dickman ED. New insights into retinoid signaling in cardiac development and physiology. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1997;7(8):324-9.
Retinoic acid (RA) and the retinoids are potent hormones derived from the nutrient vitamin A; they bind members of the nuclear steroid receptor family (RAR, RXR), which are ligand-dependent trans-activators of target gene transcription. Although classic nutrition studies largely ignored heart as a retinoid target, recent interest in this subject stems from RA's potent cardiac teratogenicity, the identification of retinoid receptors in the heart, and the cardiac malformations observed in retinoid receptor null mutant mice. This review summarizes recent research into retinoid contributions predominantly in the embryonic heart. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:324-329). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.