Immunotherapy of experimental metastases by vaccination with interleukin gene-transduced adenocarcinoma cells sharing tumor-associated antigens. Comparison between IL-12 and IL-2 gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines.

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

PubMedID: 8955204

Rodolfo M, Zilocchi C, Melani C, Cappetti B, Arioli I, Parmiani G, Colombo MP. Immunotherapy of experimental metastases by vaccination with interleukin gene-transduced adenocarcinoma cells sharing tumor-associated antigens. Comparison between IL-12 and IL-2 gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines. J Immunol. 1996;157(12):5536-42.
We have compared the therapeutic activity and characterized the antitumor response induced by IL-12 and IL-2 gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines. Mice bearing lung metastases of the BALB/c colon carcinoma C51 were treated with syngenic, histologically related, and antigenically cross-reacting irradiated IL-12 (C26/IL12) or IL-2 (C26/IL2) gene-transduced C26 tumor cells given s.c. Vaccination with C26/IL12 cells cured 40% of mice, while vaccination with C26/IL2 cells reduced the number of metastatic nodules without affecting survival. Despite this difference, similar antitumor CTL activation was shown in mice treated with C26/IL12 or C26/IL2 cells. The lytic pattern of CTL was shown to be directed to tumor-associated Ags (TAA) shared between the colon carcinomas C51, C26, and CC36 as well as with other syngenic tumors. Both treatments induced anti-TAA Abs, but only sera from mice treated with C26/IL12 contained Ab that lysed tumor cells in a C-dependent cytotoxicity assay. Early infiltration of activated T cells was found in the lungs of mice vaccinated with C26/IL12. CD4+ lymphocytes purified from the lymph nodes draining the vaccination site or from the spleen showed a higher production of IFN-gamma in response to anti-CD3 mAb in C26/IL12 vaccinated mice, while a higher production of IL-4 was shown in mice vaccinated with C26/IL2 cells. These results indicate that the better therapeutic efficacy of vaccination with C26/IL12 is associated with the production of C-binding Ab, an early infiltration of the metastatic lungs by activated T lymphocytes and a predominant systemic activation of Th1 more than Th2 cells.