Addition of N-acetyl cysteine to carvedilol decreases the incidence of acute renal injury after cardiac surgery.

Clinical cardiology

PubMedID: 24672814

Ozaydin M, Peker T, Akcay S, Uysal BA, Yucel H, Icli A, Erdogan D, Varol E, Dogan A, Okutan H. Addition of N-acetyl cysteine to carvedilol decreases the incidence of acute renal injury after cardiac surgery. Clin Cardiol. 2014;37(2):108-14.
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress and inflammation during cardiac surgery may be associated with acute renal injury (ARI). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and carvedilol have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

HYPOTHESIS
A combination of carvedilol and NAC should decrease the incidence of ARI more than metoprolol or carvedilol.

METHODS
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to metoprolol, carvedilol, or carvedilol plus NAC. End points were occurrence of ARI and change in preoperative to postoperative peak creatinine levels.

RESULTS
ARI incidence was lower in the carvedilol plus NAC group compared with the metoprolol (21.0% vs 42.1%; P = 0.002) or carvedilol (21.0% vs 38.6%; P = 0.006) groups, but was similar between the metoprolol and carvedilol groups (P = 0.62). Preoperative and postoperative day 1 creatinine levels were similar among the metoprolol (1.02 [0.9-1.2] and 1.2 [0.92-1.45]) the carvedilol (1.0 [0.88-1.08] and 1.2 [0.9-1.5]) and the carvedilol plus NAC groups (1.06 [0.9-1.18] and 1.1 [1.0-1.21] mg/dL; all P values >0.05). Postoperative day 3, day 5, and peak creatinine levels were lower in the carvedilol plus NAC group (1.11 [1.0-1.23], 1.14 [1.0-1.25] and 1.15 [1.0-1.25]) as compared with the metoprolol (1.4 [1.3-1.49], 1.3 [1.0-1.54] and 1.3 [1.0-1.54]) or carvedilol groups (1.2 [1.0-1.52], 1.25 [1.0-1.52] and 1.25 [1.0-1.55] mg/dL; all P values <0.05), but were similar between the metoprolol and carvedilol groups (all P values >0.05).

CONCLUSIONS
Combined carvedilol and NAC decreased ARI incidence as compared with carvedilol or metoprolol. No difference was detected between carvedilol and metoprolol.