The affinity of low-density lipoproteins and of very-low-density lipoprotein remnants for the low-density lipoprotein receptor in homozygous familial defective apolipoprotein B-100.

Atherosclerosis

PubMedID: 7661885

Gallagher JJ, Myant NB. The affinity of low-density lipoproteins and of very-low-density lipoprotein remnants for the low-density lipoprotein receptor in homozygous familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. Atherosclerosis. 1995;115(2):263-72.
We have identified two familial defective apo B-100 (FDB) homozygotes by DNA sequencing and have measured affinity of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants for the LDL receptor in vitro. The patients were a 66-year-old man with coronary heart disease (plasma cholesterol level, 9.5 mmol/l before treatment) and his 69-year-old sister, without signs of cardiovascular disease (plasma cholesterol, 12.0 mmol/l before treatment). In both patients, treatment with statins caused a marked fall in plasma cholesterol level. Binding affinity of LDL from the two patients was 10%-20% of normal at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Binding affinity of VLDL remnants was normal. We conclude that (1) residual affinity of LDL in homozygous FDB is high enough to permit significant catabolism via the LDL-receptor pathway, and (2) normal affinity of VLDL remnants permits normal hepatic clearance of precursors of LDL and increased clearance of LDL precursors when receptor activity is stimulated by statins. Residual affinity of LDL and normal affinity of remnants could explain why expression of the FDB mutation is generally milder than that of LDL receptor mutations causing familial hypercholesterolaemia.