High-resolution methylation analysis of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene 5' region on the active and inactive X chromosomes: correlation with binding sites for transcription factors.

Molecular and cellular biology

PubMedID: 8289817

Hornstra IK, Yang TP. High-resolution methylation analysis of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene 5' region on the active and inactive X chromosomes: correlation with binding sites for transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14(2):1419-30.
DNA methylation within GC-rich promoters of constitutively expressed X-linked genes is correlated with transcriptional silencing on the inactive X chromosome in female mammals. For most X-linked genes, X chromosome inactivation results in transcriptionally active and inactive alleles occupying each female nucleus. To examine mechanisms responsible for maintaining this unique system of differential gene expression, we have analyzed the methylation of individual cytosine residues in the 5' CpG island of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene on the active and inactive X chromosomes. Methylation analysis of 142 CpG dinucleotides by genomic sequencing was carried out on purified DNA using the cytosine-specific Maxam and Gilbert DNA sequencing reaction in conjunction with ligation-mediated PCR. These studies demonstrate the 5' CpG islands of active and 5-azacytidine-reactivated alleles are essentially unmethylated while the inactive allele is hypermethylated. The inactive allele is completely methylated at nearly all CpG dinucleotides except in a 68-bp region containing four adjacent GC boxes where most CpG dinucleotides are either unmethylated or partially methylated. Curiously, these GC boxes exhibit in vivo footprints only on the active X chromosome, not on the inactive X. The methylation pattern of the inactive HPRT gene is strikingly different from that reported for the inactive X-linked human phosphoglycerate kinase gene which exhibits methylation at all CpG sites in the 5' CpG island. These results suggest that the position of methylated CpG dinucleotides, the density of methylated CpGs, the length of methylated regions, and/or chromatin structure associated with methylated DNA may have a role in repressing the activity of housekeeping promoters on the inactive X chromosome. The pattern of DNA methylation on the inactive human HPRT gene may also provide insight into the process of inactivating the gene early in female embryogenesis.