Lipid metabolism by the intestinal mucosa in malnourished subjects following enteral nutrition supplemented with omega3 fatty acids.

Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

PubMedID: 16843308

Kowalski S, Charles F, Nano JL, Fournel S, H├ębuterne X, Rampal P. Lipid metabolism by the intestinal mucosa in malnourished subjects following enteral nutrition supplemented with omega3 fatty acids. Clin Nutr. 1993;12(3):174-81.
Chronic malnutrition results in severe metabolic imbalance in man as the body modifies its modes of regulation of different nutrients, and in particular lipids. This study of the modifications in lipid metabolism induced by 15 days of enteral renutrition include: 12 malnourished patients (global nutritional deficit (GND) <20%) were given a cyclical enteral diet for 15 days under two conditions: ternary diet (Sondalis) or a similar diet whose lipid concentration was enriched by 5.3 g omega3 fatty acid per day. On Day 0 and Day 15, the serum lipid values were assayed and duodenal biopsies were taken to measure HMG-CoA reductase and (14)C acetate incorporation in the various classes of lipids. After 15 days of refeeding, the GND had been corrected by an average of 27% and HMG-CoA reductase activity had increased by 37% (60.2 +/- 7.46 vs 82.88 +/- 14.8 pmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.05). In 7 12 patients, the serum cholesterol values had increased (p < 0.01). No difference was observed in synthesis of FA, DG or cholesterol. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) was reduced by 12% and 23% respectively. Triglyceride synthesis (TG) increased by 20% (p < 0.05). The only difference between the two diets was in TG synthesis in organ-specific culture, which was increased only by the standard diet. In conclusion: (i) refeeding is accompanied by an increase in intestinal HMG-CoA reductase activity, a decrease in PC and PG synthesis, and an increase in TG synthesis; (ii) a diet enriched in omega3 FA increases TG synthesis less than the standard diet.