Induction of a malignant phenotype in BALB/c 3t3 cells by 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane.

International journal of oncology

PubMedID: 21573650

Colacci A, Albini A, Melchiori A, Nanni P, Nicoletti G, Noonan D, Parodi S, Grilli S. Induction of a malignant phenotype in BALB/c 3t3 cells by 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. Int J Oncol. 1993;2(6):937-45.
BALB/c 3T3 cells transformed by 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the most toxic chloroethane, acquired a fully malignant phenotype. They were capable of growing in soft agar, were tumorigenic when injected in athymic mice and produced pulmonary nodules after i.v. injection. Untreated BALB/c 3T3 cells were weakly tumorigenic (3/9 animals developed tumors after a longer time) and induced rare pulmonary nodules in a low percentage of animals. Transformed cells were also invasive in the chemoinvasion assay. Moreover, they grew in a gel of reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel), penetrating the gel and assuming a branching morphology that has been associated to the malignant phenotype. By contrast, spontaneous transformants isolated from solvent controls were poorly invasive in these assays. These results show that 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane could play a role in the late steps of multistage carcinogenesis.