Insulin pump therapy in youth with type 1 diabetes: toward closed-loop systems.

Expert opinion on drug delivery

PubMedID: 24749563

Tauschmann M, Hovorka R. Insulin pump therapy in youth with type 1 diabetes: toward closed-loop systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2014;.
Introduction: Insulin pump technology has advanced considerably over the past three decades, leading to more favorable metabolic control and less hypoglycemic events when compared with multiple daily injection therapy. The use of insulin pumps is increasing, particularly in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments in insulin pump therapy from a pediatric perspective. 'Smart' pumps, sensor-augmented pump therapy and threshold-suspend feature of insulin pumps are reviewed in terms of efficacy, safety and psychosocial impact. The current status of closed-loop systems focusing on clinical outcomes is highlighted. Expert opinion: Closed-loop insulin delivery is gradually progressing from bench to the clinical practice. Longer and larger studies in home settings are needed to expand on short- to medium-term outpatient evaluations. Predictive low glucose management and overnight closed-loop delivery may be the next applications to be implemented in daily routine. Further challenges include improvements of control algorithms, sensor accuracy, duration of insulin action, integration and size of devices and connectivity and usability. Gradual improvements and increasing sophistication of closed-loop components lie on the path toward unsupervised hands-off fully closed-loop system.