Cardiac function and outcome in patients with cardio-embolic stroke.

PloS one

PubMedID: 24760037

Byun JI, Jung KH, Kim YD, Kim JM, Roh JK. Cardiac function and outcome in patients with cardio-embolic stroke. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e95277.
BACKGROUND
The relationship between whole spectrum of Ejection fraction (EF) and cardioembolic stroke (CES) outcome has not been fully described yet. Notably, it remains unclear whether borderline EF (41~49%) is related with poor outcome after CES. We sought to evaluate whether lower ejection fraction and borderline EF could predict the outcome in patients with CES.

METHOD AND RESULTS
We evaluated the relationship between EF and functional outcome in 437 consecutive patients with CES. EF was introduced as continuous and categorical (EF=40%, EF 41~49%, EF=50%) variable. Patients with CES and the subgroup with AF were evaluated separately. Poor short-term outcome (modified Rankin Score=3at discharge or death within 90 days after stroke onset) and long-term mortality were evaluated. A total of 165 patients (37.8%) had poor short-term outcomes. EF tends to be lower in patients with poor short-term outcome (56.8±11.0 vs. 54.8±12.0, p-value 0.086). Overall cumulative death was136 (31.1%) in all CES patients and 106 (31.7%) in the AF subgroup. In a multivariable model adjusted for possible covariates, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly decreased by 3% for every 1% increase in ejection fraction in CES patients and 2% for every 1% increase in the AF subgroup. Reduced EF (EF=40%) showed higher mortality (HR 2.61), and those with borderline EF (41~49%) had a tendency of higher mortality (HR 1.65, p-value 0.067)compared with those with normal EF.

CONCLUSION
We found a strong association between lower EF and CES outcome. Echocardiographic evaluation helps to better determine the prognosis in CES patients, even in subgroup of patients with AF.