The enhancing effect of ethanol on the mutagenic activation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine by cytochrome P450 2A in the rat oesophagus.

Mutagenesis

PubMedID: 23325793

Tatematsu K, Koide A, Morimura K, Fukushima S, Mori Y. The enhancing effect of ethanol on the mutagenic activation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine by cytochrome P450 2A in the rat oesophagus. Mutagenesis. 2013;28(2):161-9.
Alcohol consumption is frequently associated with various cancers and the enhancement of the metabolic activation of carcinogens has been proposed as a mechanism underlying this relationship. The ethanol-induced enhancement of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-mediated carcinogenesis can be attributed to an increase in hepatic activity. However, the mechanism of elevation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced tumorigenesis remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the role of ethanol in the enhancement of NMBA-induced oesophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated the hepatic and extrahepatic levels of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) and mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by immunoblot analyses and Ames preincubation test, respectively, in F344 rats treated with ethanol. Five weeks of treatment with 10% ethanol added to the drinking water or two intragastric treatments with 50% ethanol, both resulted in elevated levels of CYP2E1 (1.5- to 2.3-fold) and mutagenic activities of DEN, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine in the presence of rat liver S9 (1.5- to 2.4-fold). This was not the case with CYP1A1/2, CYP2A1/2, CYP2B1/2 or CYP3A2, nor with the activities of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, aflatoxin B(1) or other N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), including NMBA. Ethanol-induced elevations of CYP2A and CYP2E1 were observed in the oesophagus (up to 1.7- and 2.3-fold) and kidney (up to 1.5- and 1.8-fold), but not in the lung or colon. In oesophagus and kidney, the mutagenic activities of NMBA and four NOCs were markedly increased (1.3- to 2.4-fold) in treated rats. The application of several CYP inhibitors revealed that CYP2A were likely to contribute to the enhancing effect of ethanol on NMBA activation in the rat oesophagus and kidney, but that CYP2E1 failed to do so. These results showed that the enhancing effect of ethanol on NMBA-induced oesophageal carcinogenesis could be attributed to an increase in the metabolic activation of NMBA by oesophageal CYP2A during the initiation phase, and that this occurred independently of CYP2E1.