Intestinal microsomes: polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and regulation of enterocyte transport properties.

Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology

PubMedID: 2187578

Garg ML, Keelan M, Thomson AB, Clandinin MT. Intestinal microsomes: polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and regulation of enterocyte transport properties. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1990;68(5):636-41.
Recent evidence has suggested that transport of nutrients from the lumen to the interior of the gastrointestinal epithelium and exit of nutrients from the enterocyte to the circulation is governed by physicochemical properties of brush border and basolateral membranes, respectively. The main determinants of membrane properties are phospholipid, cholesterol, and fatty acyl chain composition (chain length and degree of unsaturation). Lipid synthesis occurs in enterocyte microsomes and the fine tuning of lipid composition is done at other subcellular sites by deacylation-reacylation or by changing the polar head group (e.g., by phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase). The present paper will focus on the mechanisms by which enterocyte membranes adapt functional properties in response to external stimuli. It is proposed that under the influence of internal or external stress, the enzymes of lipid metabolism in microsomes are modulated. These changes in lipid synthesis are reflected in other subcellular membranes, changing their physicochemical status and thus transport phenomena. One of the initial events appears to be alteration in desaturase enzyme activity. Our results suggest that desaturase activity and the fatty acyl profiles of the intestinal mucosal phospholipid rapidly respond to physiological conditions such as fasting and dietary fat treatment.