Problems of the distal ureter in renal transplantation.

Urologia internationalis

PubMedID: 1441016

Dreikorn K. Problems of the distal ureter in renal transplantation. Urol Int. 1992;49(2):76-89.
The incidence and mortality rates of urologic complications in renal transplantation have decreased significantly during the last decade. This was achieved by improved techniques of donor nephrectomy with preservation of the ureteric blood supply and refined procedures for the reconstruction of the urinary tract. Intra- and extravesical ureteroneocystostomies have shown to be the most reliable and preferred techniques to restore the urinary tract continuity. Beside ureteral ischemia and technical failure ureteral rejection is increasingly accepted as an important contributory factor for the development of ureteric fistula and stenosis formation. Controversy still exists concerning the pathogenesis of reflux into the graft and its impact on long-term graft function. Percutaneous and endoscopic procedures have supplemented and partially replaced open surgical management of ureteric fistulas and stenoses. By adherence to the principles described the frequency of urologic complications and its associated mortality rates can be minimized.