Anatomical study of the valves of the superficial veins of the forearm.

Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery

PubMedID: 1401109

Shima H, Ohno K, Shimizu T, Michi K, Egawa K, Takiguchi R. Anatomical study of the valves of the superficial veins of the forearm. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1992;20(7):305-9.
The valves of the cephalic, basilic and median cubital veins were investigated in the superficial veins of the left forearm in 9 cadavers, aged 25-95. The radial forearm flaps involving these veins are of special clinicoanatomical importance. The following results were obtained: (1) Valves were most frequently evident at Site G of the cephalic vein. No valves were present in Section A-B, (2) type B valves were located at confluences, junctions and branches and were more frequent (54.7%) than Type A (45.3%) located in the straight trunks of superficial forearm veins, (3) Type 2 valves accounted for most (82.3%), and these were followed by Type 1 and Type 4b (5.9%), Type 4a (4.4%) and Type 3 (1.5%).