Plasticity of the Axonal Trigger Zone.

The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry

PubMedID: 24847046

Adachi R, Yamada R, Kuba H. Plasticity of the Axonal Trigger Zone. Neuroscientist. 2014;.
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized axonal compartment that is involved in conversion of synaptic potentials into action potentials. Recent studies revealed that structural properties of the AIS, such as length and position relative to the soma, are differentiated in a cell-specific manner and shape signal processing of individual neurons. Moreover, these structural properties are not fixed but vary in response to prolonged changes of neuronal activity, which readjusts action potential threshold and compensates for the changes of activity, indicating that this structural plasticity of the AIS works as a homeostatic mechanism and contributes to maintain neuronal activity. Neuronal activity plays a crucial role in formation, maintenance, and refinement of neural circuits as well as in pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of diseases. Thus, this plasticity should be a key to understand physiology and pathology of the brain.