HMGB1 Phenotypic Role Revealed with Stress.

Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)

PubMedID: 24937773

Tang D, Kang R, Van Houten B, Zeh HJ, Billiar TR, Lotze MT. HMGB1 Phenotypic Role Revealed with Stress. Mol Med. 2014;.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that is present in one form or another in all eukaryotes. It fundamentally resides in the nucleus but translocates to the cytosol with stress and is subsequently released into the extracellular space. HMGB1 global knockout mice exhibit lethal hypoglycemia, whereas tissues and cells from conditional knockout or knockin mice are born alive without apparent significant functional deficit. An aberrant response to targeted stress in the liver, pancreas, heart, or myeloid cells is consistent with a protective role for HMGB1 in sustaining nuclear homeostasis and enabling other stress responses, including autophagy. Under some conditions, HMGB1 is not required for liver and heart function. Many challenges remain with respect to understanding the multiple roles of HMGB1 in health and disease.