Hypersensitivity linked to exposure of broad bean protein(s) in allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)

PubMedID: 24985010

Kumar D, Kumar S, Verma AK, Sharma A, Tripathi A, Chaudhari BP, Kant S, Das M, Jain SK, Dwivedi PD. Hypersensitivity linked to exposure of broad bean protein(s) in allergic patients and BALB/c mice. Nutrition. 2014;30(7-8):903-14.
OBJECTIVE
Broad bean (Vicia faba L.), a common vegetable, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is consumed worldwide. Limited studies have been done on allergenicity of broad beans. The aim of this study was to determine if broad bean proteins have the ability to elicit allergic responses due to the presence of clinically relevant allergenic proteins.

METHODS
Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblotting were carried out to identify pepsin-resistant and IgE-binding proteins. The allergenicity of broad beans was assessed in allergic patients, BALB/c mice, splenocytes, and RBL-2H3 cells.

RESULTS
Eight broad bean proteins of approximate molecular weight 70, 60, 48, 32, 23, 19, 15, and 10 kDa that remained undigested in SGF, showed IgE-binding capacity as well. Of 127 allergic patients studied, broad bean allergy was evident in 16 (12%). Mice sensitized with broad bean showed increased levels of histamine, total and specific IgE, and severe signs of systemic anaphylaxis compared with controls. Enhanced levels of histamine, prostaglandin D2, cysteinyl leukotriene, and ß-hexosaminidase release were observed in the primed RBL-2H3 cells following broad bean exposure. The levels of interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted were found enhanced in broad bean-treated splenocytes culture supernatant compared with controls.

CONCLUSION
This study inferred that broad bean proteins have the ability to elicit allergic responses due to the presence of clinically relevant allergenic proteins.