Association between an alternative promoter polymorphism and sperm deformity rate is due to modulation of the expression of KATNAL1 transcripts in Chinese Holstein bulls.

Animal genetics

PubMedID: 24990491

Zhang X, Wang C, Zhang Y, Ju Z, Qi C, Wang X, Huang J, Zhang S, Li J, Zhong J, Shi F. Association between an alternative promoter polymorphism and sperm deformity rate is due to modulation of the expression of KATNAL1 transcripts in Chinese Holstein bulls. Anim Genet. 2014;.
Katanin p60 subunit A-like 1 (KATNAL1) is an ATPase that regulates Sertoli cell microtubule dynamics and sperm retention. We evaluated one novel splice variant and characterized the promoter and a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the bovine KATNAL1 gene to explore its expression pattern, possible regulatory mechanism and relationship with semen traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. A novel splice variant, KATNAL1 transcript variant 2 (KATNAL1-TV2) of the retained 68 bp in intron 2, was identified by RT-PCR and compared with KATNAL1 transcript variant 1 (KATNAL1-TV1, NM 001192918.1) in various tissues. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that KATNAL1 transcription was regulated by two promoters: P1 in KATNAL1-TV1 and P2 in KATNAL1-TV2. Results of qRT-PCR revealed that KATNAL1-TV1 had higher expression than did KATNAL1-TV2 in testes of adult bulls (P < 0.05). Promoter luciferase activity analysis suggested that the core sequences of P1 and P2 were mapped to the region of c.-575˜c.-180 and c.163-40˜c.333+59 respectively. One novel SNP (c.163-210T>C, ss836312085) located in intron 1 was found using sequence alignment. The SNP in P2 resulted in the presence of the DeltaE binding site, improving its basal promoter activity (P < 0.05); and we observed a greater sperm deformity rate in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype TT (P < 0.05), which indicated that different genotypes were associated with the bovine semen traits. Bioinformatics analysis of the KATNAL1 protein sequence predicted that the loss of the MIT domain in the KATNAL1-TV2 transcript resulted in protein dysfunction. These findings help us to understand that a functional SNP in P2 and subsequent triggering of expression diversity of KATNAL1 transcripts are likely to play an important role with regard to semen traits in bull breeding programs.