Inflammation, infection, cancer and all that…the role of paraoxonases.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology

PubMedID: 25038992

Devarajan A, Shih D, Reddy ST. Inflammation, infection, cancer and all that…the role of paraoxonases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;82433-41.
The paraoxonase (PON) gene family consists of three members, PON1, PON2 and PON3. All PON proteins possess antioxidant properties and lipo-lactonase activities, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes and cancer. Despite the role of PON proteins in critical cellular functions and associated pathologies, the physiological substrates and molecular mechanisms by which PON proteins function as anti-inflammatory proteins remain largely unknown. PON1 is found exclusively extracellular and associated solely with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the circulation, and, in part, confers the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties associated with HDL. Recent studies demonstrated that the intracellular PON proteins; PON2 and PON3 (i) are associated with mitochondria and mitochondria-associated membranes, (ii) modulate mitochondria-dependent superoxide production, and (iii) prevent apoptosis. Overexpression of PON2 and PON3 genes protected (i) mitochondria from antimycin or oligomycin mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and (ii) ER stress and ER stress mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. These studies illustrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PON2 and PON3 may, in part, be mediated by their role in mitochondrial and associated organelle function. Since oxidative stress as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the development of inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, these recent studies on PON2 and PON3 proteins may provide a mechanism for the scores of epidemiological studies that show a link between PON genes and numerous inflammatory diseases. Understanding such mechanisms will provide novel routes of intervention in the treatment of diseases associated with pro-inflammatory oxidative stress.