The volume of distribution is an indicator of poor in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance for acidic drugs in the rat.

Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems

PubMedID: 23323549

Sohlenius-Sternbeck AK, Fagerholm U, Bylund J. The volume of distribution is an indicator of poor in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance for acidic drugs in the rat. Xenobiotica. 2013;43(8):671-8.
Abstract 1. We applied the regression offset approach to predict rat in vivo intrinsic clearance (CLint) for 54 new chemical acid entities with high plasma protein binding values and low renal clearance (CL). The prediction success was correlated to volume of distribution (Vd), molecular weight (Mw) and CL. 2. A correlation between poor in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and Vd values distinct from the Vd of albumin (0.1-0.2?L/kg) was revealed. For compounds with a Vd value above 0.5?L/kg, 0% of the predictions of in vivo CLint was within twofold of the observed value, compared to 69% for compounds with a Vd value below 0.5?L/kg. 3.??Compounds with a Mw below 450?g/mol demonstrated more accurate in vivo CLint predictions than compounds with a Mw above 450?g/mol, i.e. 63% compared to 21% within twofold. For compounds with in vivo CL below 30% of the liver blood flow (LBF), 53% of the predictions was within twofold of the observed value, compared to 0% for compounds with CL above 30% of the LBF. 4. We show that accurate IVIVE for acidic compounds with high plasma protein binding and low renal CL can be associated with a low Vd (i.e. around the Vd of albumin) and with a low in vivo CL, and that Mw is an important optimization parameter for pharmacokinetic. This study also further demonstrates the advantages of the application of the regression method for identifying cases when metabolic CL is not the single major elimination pathway.