Stimulating antitumor immunity with nanoparticles.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology

PubMedID: 25069691

Sheen MR, Lizotte PH, Toraya-Brown S, Fiering S. Stimulating antitumor immunity with nanoparticles. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2014;6(5):496-505.
UNLABELLED
A variety of strategies, have been applied to cancer treatment and the most recent one to become prominent is immunotherapy. This interest has been fostered by the demonstration that the immune system does recognize and often eliminate small tumors but tumors that become clinical problems block antitumor immune responses with immunosuppression orchestrated by the tumor cells. Methods to reverse this tumor-mediated immunosuppression will improve cancer immunotherapy outcomes. The immunostimulatory potential of nanoparticles (NPs), holds promise for cancer treatment. Phagocytes of various types are an important component of both immunosuppression and immunostimulation and phagocytes actively take up NPs of various sorts, so NPs are a natural system to manipulate these key immune regulatory cells. NPs can be engineered with multiple useful therapeutic features, such as various payloads such as antigens and/or immunomodulatory agents including cytokines, ligands for immunostimulatory receptors or antagonists for immunosuppressive receptors. As more is learned about how tumors suppress antitumor immune responses the payload options expand further. Here we review multiple approaches of NP-based cancer therapies to modify the tumor microenvironment and stimulate innate and adaptive immune systems to obtain effective antitumor immune responses. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.