Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are not a predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis in an Ishigaki Island under subtropical climate.

Journal of dermatological science

PubMedID: 25086748

Sasaki T, Furusyo N, Shiohama A, Takeuchi S, Nakahara T, Uchi H, Hirota T, Tamari M, Shimizu N, Ebihara T, Amagai M, Furue M, Hayashi J, Kudoh J. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are not a predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis in an Ishigaki Island under subtropical climate. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;.
BACKGROUND
Filaggrin (FLG) is a major protein component of the stratum corneum (SC) layer, and FLG loss-of-function mutations are a predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Previous cohort studies of children from northern and western Europe have reported FLG loss-of-function mutation frequencies of 15.1-20.9% and 5.8-13.0% in AD and non-AD groups, respectively.

OBJECTIVE
To elucidate the association between AD prevalence of FLG loss-of-function mutation carriers and climate conditions, we determined the AD prevalence and FLG loss-of-function mutation frequencies in a cohort of children from Ishigaki Island. Ishigaki Island has a subtropical climate with high humidity (monthly average, 60.8-78.7%) and high temperature (monthly average, 18.5-29.4°C) throughout the year.

METHODS
We diagnosed AD prevalence and analyzed eight FLG loss-of-function mutations in the Japanese population against a cohort of 721 children from the Kyushu University Ishigaki Atopic Dermatitis Study (KIDS) cohort. Parents gave consent for the mutation analysis during their medical examinations from 2001 to 2006.

RESULTS
Average AD prevalence was 7.3% per year, and a total of 127 children (17.6%) were diagnosed with AD at least once between 2001 and 2006. The average total serum IgE level differed significantly between the AD and non-AD groups (199.0 and 69.0IU/ml, respectively). Although five kinds of FLG loss-of-function mutations isolated in previous Japanese FLG mutation studies were identified, the FLG loss-of-function mutation frequency in children of the KIDS cohort was not significantly different between the AD and non-AD groups (7.9% and 6.1%, respectively; P=0.174).

CONCLUSION
The FLG loss-of-function mutation frequency was not significantly different between the AD and non-AD groups in a cohort of children from Ishigaki Island, which has a subtropical climate, suggesting that FLG loss-of-function mutations are not always a predisposing factor for AD prevalence.