Treatment of the Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease according to Cluster Symptoms Presentation.

Current drug targets

PubMedID: 25174438

Lauretani F, Saginario A, Ceda GP, Galuppo L, Ruffini L, Nardelli A, Maggio M. Treatment of the Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease according to Cluster Symptoms Presentation. Curr Drug Targets. 2014;.
The term Parkinson's disease has been changed in 'Parkinson's diseases' to describe different clinical entities observed in several studies investigating the existence of PD subtypes. PD patients could be grouped based on clinical features. By considering only motor symptoms, we can classically distinguish two groups: " the tremorigen-form" and "akinetic-rigidity-form" where resting tremor and akinesia/bradikynesia and rigidity are the most motor predominant symptoms, respectively. Non-motor symptoms (NMSs) are practically always present during the course of the disease and some of them (constipation, depressive status, hyposmia and anxiety) could even exist before the onset of classical motor symptoms. Many other NMSs and in particular hallucinations, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders and difficulty in swallowing strongly affect the advanced stage of disease, and represent a real therapeutic challenge when these symptoms are simultaneously present with different severity. If not adequately treated, they can increase the risk of hospitalization and admissions in nursing home, and profoundly and negatively influence the quality of life and participation in social activity of these patients. PD subtypes according to the combination of motor and non-motor symptoms have been recently proposed. This classification derives by cluster analysis which permits to identify statistically distinct subtypes of Parkinsonian patients according to the relevance of both motor and non-motor symptoms. In this point of view, we propose a schematic therapeutic approach of motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease according to cluster symptoms presentation (motor and no-motor symptoms) and using medications that act on multiple domains of PD symptoms.