Effectiveness of topically administered neutralizing antibodies in experimental immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats.

Journal of virology

PubMedID: 3553614

Prince GA, Hemming VG, Horswood RL, Baron PA, Chanock RM. Effectiveness of topically administered neutralizing antibodies in experimental immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats. J Virol. 1987;61(6):1851-4.
Initial studies of the prophylactic effect of parenterally administered respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-neutralizing antibodies in cotton rats indicated that virus replication in lung tissues was restricted when animals with preexisting antibody titers in serum of 1:100 or more (as measured by plaque reduction) were challenged intranasally with 10(4) PFU of virus. Subsequently, a therapeutic effect of parenterally administered RSV antibodies (present in human gamma globulin) was demonstrated in both cotton rats and owl monkeys. Parenteral inoculation of RSV-infected cotton rats or owl monkeys with purified human immunoglobulin licensed for intravenous administration in humans (IVIG) effected a 10(-1.7) to 10(-2.7) reduction in the level of pulmonary virus at the height of infection. Because of these encouraging results, we examined topical administration of IVIG to determine whether it was also effective and whether it offered an advantage over the parenteral route with regard to simplicity and the dose required for full therapeutic effect. IVIG (0.025 g/kg) administered topically by the intranasal route to anesthetized cotton rats at the height of RSV infection effected a 10(2.2)-fold reduction in viral titers of pulmonary tissues and a complete clearance of detectable virus in 92% of the animals within 24 h. In contrast, 4 g of IVIG per kg was required to produce a comparable therapeutic effect when the material was administered parenterally. Thus, the therapeutic effect of IVIG was 160 times greater by the topical route than by parenteral inoculation.