The role of plant metabolism in the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of four organophosphorus insecticides in Salmonella typhimurium and in human cell lines.

Chemosphere

PubMedID: 23434078

Cortés-Eslava J, Gómez-Arroyo S, Arenas-Huertero F, Flores-Maya S, Díaz-Hernández ME, Calderón-Segura ME, Valencia-Quintana R, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ, Villalobos-Pietrini R. The role of plant metabolism in the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of four organophosphorus insecticides in Salmonella typhimurium and in human cell lines. Chemosphere. 2013;92(9):1117-25.
This study used a cell/microbe co-incubation assay to evaluate the effect of four organophosphorus insecticides (parathion-methyl, azinphos-methyl, omethoate, and methamidophos) metabolized by coriander (Coriandrum sativum). The reverse mutation of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 was used as an indicator of genetic damage. Treatments with these insecticides inhibited peroxidase activity in plant cells by between 17% (omethoate) and 98% (azinphos-methyl) and decreased plant protein content by between 36% (omethoate) and 99.6% (azinphos-methyl). Azinphos-methyl was the most toxic when applied directly. In the Ames test, treatments applied directly to strain TA100 killed the bacteria; however, the presence of plant metabolism detoxified the system and permitted the growth of bacteria. In strain TA98, plant metabolites of insecticides were mutagenic. This result suggests that the tested pesticides produce mutations through frameshifting. The same pesticides were applied to human skin (HaCaT) and lung (NL-20) cell lines to evaluate their effects on cell viability. Pesticides applied directly were more cytotoxic than the combination of pesticide plus coriander metabolic fraction. Omethoate and methamidophos did not affect the viability of HaCaT cells, but azinphos-methyl and parathion-methyl at 100 and 1000µgmL(-1) significantly decreased viability (p<0.05). The NL-20 cell line was remarkably sensitive to the direct application of insecticides. All of the treatment conditions caused decreases in NL-20 cell viability (e.g., viability decreased to 12.0% after parathion-methyl treatment, to 14.7% after azinphos-methyl treatment, and to 6.9% after omethoate treatment). Similar to the Ames test, all of the insecticides showed decreased toxicity in human cells when they were cultured in the presence of plant metabolism. In conclusion, when the studied organophosphorus insecticides were plant-metabolized, they induced mutations in the bacterial strain TA98. In human cell lines, plant metabolism reduced the cytotoxic properties of the insecticides, and human keratinocytes were more resistant to mortality than bronchial cells.