Comparative toxicity of two glyphosate-based formulations to Eisenia andrei under laboratory conditions.

Chemosphere

PubMedID: 23332878

Piola L, Fuchs J, Oneto ML, Basack S, Kesten E, Casabé N. Comparative toxicity of two glyphosate-based formulations to Eisenia andrei under laboratory conditions. Chemosphere. 2013;91(4):545-51.
Glyphosate-based products are the leading post-emergent agricultural herbicides in the world, particularly in association with glyphosate tolerant crops. However, studies on the effects of glyphosate-based formulations on terrestrial receptors are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative toxicity of two glyphosate-based products: Roundup FG (monoammonium salt, 72% acid equivalent, glyphosate-A) and Mon 8750 (monoammonium salt, 85.4% acid equivalent, glyphosate-B), towards the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Median lethal concentration (LC50) showed that glyphosate-A was 4.5-fold more toxic than glyphosate-B. Sublethal concentrations caused a concentration-dependent weight loss, consistent with the reported effect of glyphosate as uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Glyphosate-A showed deleterious effects on DNA and lysosomal damage at concentrations close to the applied environmental concentrations (14.4 µg ae cm(-2)). With glyphosate-B toxic effects were observed at higher doses, close to its LC50, suggesting that the higher toxicity of formulate A could be attributed to the effects of some of the so-called "inert ingredients", either due to a direct intrinsic toxicity, or to an enhancement in the bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation of the active ingredient. Our results highlight the importance of ecotoxicological assessment not only of the active ingredients, but also of the different formulations usually employed in agricultural practices.