Periventricular nodular heterotopia on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

PubMedID: 23151899

Blondiaux E, Sileo C, Nahama-Allouche C, Moutard ML, Gelot A, Jouannic JM, Ducou Le Pointe H, Garel C. Periventricular nodular heterotopia on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;42(2):149-55.
OBJECTIVES
To describe the prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH).

METHODS
This retrospective case series included fetuses referred to our institution for brain MRI between 2007 and 2012, which were diagnosed with PNH and confirmed by postnatal MRI or autopsy. The type of PNH, associated ventriculomegaly and associated malformations are reported.

RESULTS
We included 11 fetuses (nine female, two male) with a mean gestational age at diagnosis of 31 (range, 23-34) weeks. PNH lesions were small and diffuse (n?=?7), large and multiple (n?=?1) or single (n?=?3). A targeted ultrasound examination performed before fetal MRI missed the diagnosis in four cases (one diffuse and three single); a further ultrasound examination performed after MRI diagnosed PNH in two of these four cases. Ventriculomegaly was present in six cases (four unilateral and two bilateral). PNH appeared in all cases as nodules of intermediate echogenicity protruding into the ventricular lumen. In all cases of diffuse PNH, the frontal horns and bodies of the lateral ventricles appeared square in shape on coronal view, with irregular borders on axial view. Associated cerebral malformations were observed in seven cases and included corpus callosal agenesis (n?=?4, with additional malformations in two) and retrocerebellar cyst (n?=?3). Extracerebral malformations were also present in two cases. Maternal MRI was performed in five of the six cases of isolated small and diffuse PNH in female fetuses, and demonstrated PNH in two of these.

CONCLUSION
PNH is underdiagnosed at prenatal ultrasound, even on targeted scans. Irregular ventricular borders on axial view and irregular square-shaped lateral ventricles on coronal view are suggestive of PNH at prenatal ultrasound. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.