Toxic metals produce an S-phase-specific cell cycle block.

Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology

PubMedID: 7163636

Costa M, Cantoni O, de Mars M, Swartzendruber DE. Toxic metals produce an S-phase-specific cell cycle block. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1982;38(3):405-19.
In order of decreasing potency, CdCl2 greater than HgCl2 greater than CoCl2 greater than CuSO4 greater than NiCl2 greater than ZnCl2 and PbSO4 slowed cell growth at concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 60 microM. Flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle position indicated that cell growth was selectively blocked in S phase by these concentrations. Water insoluble metals such as As, Ni, crystalline Ni3S2, crystalline NiS, crystalline Ni3Se2 and NiO also resulted in an S phase blockage of cells at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms/ml. The crystalline nickel sulfide and selenide compounds as well as As metal were the most potent of these. At higher concentrations blockage of cells in mitosis was also evident with a number of the water insoluble metal compounds. The potency of the metal compounds in blocking cells in S phase was related to their chemical reactivity and their uptake into cells. The S phase specific blockage produced by the metals examined was consistent with their genotoxic or carcinogenic activity since such activity indicated a selective interaction with DNA metabolism.