Control of calcium transport in the myocardium by the cyclic AMP-Protein kinase system.

Advances in cyclic nucleotide research

PubMedID: 165680

Katz AM, Tada M, Kirchberger MA. Control of calcium transport in the myocardium by the cyclic AMP-Protein kinase system. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 1975;5453-72.
At least three mechanical changes characterize the response of cardiac muscle to agents that enhance cyclic AMP production. In common with other inotropic interventions, tension is augmented and the rate of tension rise is increased. The third response, acceleration of the rate of relaxation, is characteristic of the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. These mechanical effects can be attributed to changes in (1) the amount of Ca2+ released during systole, (2) the rate of Ca2+ release at the onset of systole, and (3) the rate at which Ca2+ is reaccumulated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum at the end of systole. The ability of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases to phosphorylate the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum in vitro parallels stimulation of both Ca2+ transport and Ca2+-activated ATPase. The phosphoprotein formed in the presence of cyclic AMP and protein kinase has the chemical characteristics of a phosphoester, contains mostly phosphoserine, and has an electrophoretic mobility in SDS polyacrylamide gels that corresponds to a protein of 22,000 daltons. This 22,000-dalton protein, tentatively named phospholamban, thus differs from the acyl phosphooprotein formed by the Ca2+-transport ATPase, which as an apparent molecular weight of 90,000 to 100,000 daltons. Phospholamban has not been found in fast skeletal muscle, nor is Ca2+ transport accelerated by cyclic AMP and protein kinase in sarcoplasmic reticulum from these muslces which do not respond to beta-adrenergic agonists with accelerated relaxation. It thus appears likely that phosphorylation of phospholamban correlates both with an increased rate of Ca2+ transport by cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum in vitro and accelerated relaxation in the intact myocardium. Preliminary findings are consistent with the view that phosphorylation of phospholamban may be related to other actions on Ca2+ fluxes brought about by agents which activate adenylate cyclase in the myocardium, but these interpretations must remain speculative pending more definitive studies.