DSG3 as a biomarker for the ultrasensitive detection of occult lymph node metastasis in oral cancer using nanostructured immunoarrays.

Oral oncology

PubMedID: 23010602

Patel V, Martin D, Malhotra R, Marsh CA, Doçi CL, Veenstra TD, Nathan CA, Sinha UK, Singh B, Molinolo AA, Rusling JF, Gutkind JS. DSG3 as a biomarker for the ultrasensitive detection of occult lymph node metastasis in oral cancer using nanostructured immunoarrays. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(2):93-101.
OBJECTIVES
The diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients constitutes an essential requirement for clinical staging and treatment selection. However, clinical assessment by physical examination and different imaging modalities, as well as by histological examination of routine lymph node cryosections can miss micrometastases, while false positives may lead to unnecessary elective lymph node neck resections. Here, we explored the feasibility of developing a sensitive assay system for desmoglein 3 (DSG3) as a predictive biomarker for lymph node metastasis in HNSCC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
DSG3 expression was determined in multiple general cancer- and HNSCC-tissue microarrays (TMAs), in negative and positive HNSCC metastatic cervical lymph nodes, and in a variety of HNSCC and control cell lines. A nanostructured immunoarray system was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of DSG3 in lymph node tissue lysates.

RESULTS
We demonstrate that DSG3 is highly expressed in all HNSCC lesions and their metastatic cervical lymph nodes, but absent in non-invaded lymph nodes. We show that DSG3 can be rapidly detected with high sensitivity using a simple microfluidic immunoarray platform, even in human tissue sections including very few HNSCC invading cells, hence distinguishing between positive and negative lymph nodes.

CONCLUSION
We provide a proof of principle supporting that ultrasensitive nanostructured assay systems for DSG3 can be exploited to detect micrometastatic HNSCC lesions in lymph nodes, which can improve the diagnosis and guide in the selection of appropriate therapeutic intervention modalities for HNSCC patients.