Biodegradable polymer scaffolds loaded with low-dose BMP-2 stimulate periodontal ligament cell differentiation.

Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A

PubMedID: 25231842

Skodje A, Idris SB, Sun Y, Bartaula S, Mustafa K, Finne-Wistrand A, Wikesjö UM, Leknes KN. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds loaded with low-dose BMP-2 stimulate periodontal ligament cell differentiation. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014;.
Poly(L-lactide)-co-(epsilon-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) and poly(L-lactide)-co-(1,5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly(LLA-co-DXO)) are being considered candidate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. We evaluated the bioactive potential of poly(LLA-co-CL) and poly(LLA-co-DXO) scaffolds loaded with low-dose bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured onto the various scaffolds loaded with 1 µg BMP-2 or without BMP-2 (control). Cell viability, attachment and proliferation were determined using a methylthiazol tetrazolium colorimetric assay Day 1, 3 and 7. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze cell morphology Day 7. Cell differentiation was evaluated assaying alkaline phosphatase activity Day 7, 14 and 21. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of periostin, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, bone sialoprotein and BMP-2. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to assess BMP-2 production. Surface analysis disclosed excellent cell attachment, spread and penetration into the porous scaffolds. The methylthiazol tetrazolium assay indicated that scaffolds loaded with low concentration of BMP-2 did not influence the viability of cells. Cells grown on the modified scaffolds expressed higher levels of osteogenic markers than the non-modified scaffolds (P< 0.05). Poly(LLA-co-CL) and poly(LLA-co-DXO) scaffolds loaded with low-dose BMP-2 exhibited a significant effect stimulating PDL differentiation suggesting a continued evaluation in relevant in vivo models.