Influence of intragenic CCL3 haplotypes and CCL3L copy number in HIV-1 infection in a sub-Saharan African population.

Genes and immunity

PubMedID: 23151487

Paximadis M, Schramm DB, Gray GE, Sherman G, Coovadia A, Kuhn L, Tiemessen CT. Influence of intragenic CCL3 haplotypes and CCL3L copy number in HIV-1 infection in a sub-Saharan African population. Genes Immun. 2013;14(1):42-51.
Two CCL3 haplotypes (HapA1 and Hap-A3) and two polymorphic positions shared by the haplotypes (Hap-2SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)) were investigated together with CCL3L copy number (CN), for their role in HIV-1 disease. Hap-A1 was associated with protection from in utero HIV-1 infection: exposed uninfected (EU) infants had higher representation of wild type (WT)/Hap-A1 than infected infants (excluding intrapartum (IP)-infected infants), which maintained significance post maternal Nevirapine (mNVP) and viral load (MVL) correction (P=0.04; odds ratio (OR)=0.33). Mother-infant pair analyses showed the protective effect of Hap-A1 is dependent on its presence in the infant. Hap-A3 was associated with increased IP transmission: WT/Hap-A3 was increased in IP-transmitting vs non-transmitting (NT) mothers, and remained significant post mNVP and MVL correction (P=0.02; OR=3.50). This deleterious effect of Hap-A3 seemed dependent on its presence in the mother. Hap-2SNP was associated with lower CD4 count in the NT mothers (P=0.03). CCL3 Hap-A1 was associated with high CCL3L CN in total (P=0.001) and EU infants (P=0.006); the effect was not additive, however, having either Hap-A1 or high CCL3L CN was more significantly (P=0.0008) associated with protection from in utero infection than Hap-A1 (P=0.028) or high CCL3L CN (P=0.002) alone. Linkage disequilibrium between Hap-A1 and high CCL3L CN appears unlikely given that a Nigerian population showed an opposite relationship.