LOCALIZATION OF THE VIRUS AND PATHOGENESIS OF EPIDEMIC POLIOMYELITIS.

The Journal of experimental medicine

PubMedID: 19867819

Flexner S, Amoss HL. LOCALIZATION OF THE VIRUS AND PATHOGENESIS OF EPIDEMIC POLIOMYELITIS. J Exp Med. 1914;20(3):249-68.
The virus of poliomyelitis is capable of penetrating the retina without producing apparent injury, to reach the central nervous organs. The virus injected into the blood is deposited promptly in the spleen and bone marrow, but not in the kidneys, spinal cord, or brain. Notwithstanding the affinity which the nervous tissues possess for the virus, it is not removed from the blood by the spinal cord and brain until the choroid plexus and blood vessels have suffered injury. The intervertebral ganglia remove the virus from the blood earlier than do the spinal cord and brain. An aseptic inflammation produced by an intraspinous injection of horse serum facilitates and insures the passage of the virus to the central nervous organs, and the production of paralysis. The unaided virus, even when present in large amounts, passes inconstantly from the blood to the substance of the spinal cord and brain. When the virus within the blood fails to gain access to the central nervous organs, and to set up paralysis, it is destroyed by the body, in course of which destruction it undergoes, as a result of the action of the spleen and, perhaps, other organs, diminution of virulence. The histological lesions that follow the intravenous injections of the virus in some but not in all cases differ from those which result from intraneural modes of infection. In escaping from the blood into the spinal cord and brain, the virus causes a lymphatic invasion of the choroid plexus and widespread perivascular infiltration, and from the latter cellular invasions enter the nervous tissues. A similar lymphoid infiltration of the choroid plexus may arise also from an intracerebral injection of the virus. The histological lesions present in the central nervous organs in human cases of poliomyelitis correspond to those that arise from the intraneural method of infection in the monkey. The virus in transit from the blood through the cerebrospinal fluid to the substance of the spinal cord and brain is capable of being neutralized by intraspinous injection of immune serum, whereby the production of paralysis is averted. Carmin in a sterile and finely divided state introduced into the meninges and ventricles sets up an aseptic inflammation, but is quickly taken up by cells, including ependymal cells. When an aseptic inflammation has been previously established by means of horse serum, or when the nervous tissues are already injured by the poliomyelitic virus, the pigment appears to enter the ependymal cells more freely. The experiments described support the view that infection in epidemic poliomyelitis in man is local and neural, and by way of the lymphatics, and not general and by way of the blood. Hence they uphold the belief that the infection atrium is the upper respiratory mucous membrane.