Preventing infection of osseointegrated transcutaneous implants: Incorporation of silver into preconditioned fibronectin-functionalized hydroxyapatite coatings suppresses Staphylococcus aureus colonization while promoting viable fibroblast growth in vitro.

Biointerphases

PubMedID: 25280851

Chimutengwende-Gordon M, Pendegrass C, Bayston R, Blunn G. Preventing infection of osseointegrated transcutaneous implants: Incorporation of silver into preconditioned fibronectin-functionalized hydroxyapatite coatings suppresses Staphylococcus aureus colonization while promoting viable fibroblast growth in vitro. Biointerphases. 2014;9(3):031010.
The success of transcutaneous implants depends on the achievement of a soft tissue seal by enabling fibroblasts to win the race for the surface against bacteria. Fibronectin-functionalized hydroxyapatite coatings (HAFn) have been shown to improve dermal tissue ingrowth and attachment. However, during the early postoperative period before a soft tissue seal has formed, bacterial colonization may occur. This study explored the incorporation of silver, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, into HAFn coatings with the aim of reducing bacterial colonization. Silver is known to have dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. Therefore, the effects of silver incorporation into HAFn coatings on both in vitro human dermal fibroblast viability and Staphylococcus aureus colonization were assessed. An electrochemical deposition technique was used to codeposit hydroxyapatite and silver (HAAg) and fibronectin was adsorbed onto this to produce HAAgFn coatings. Surfaces were preconditioned with serum to mimic the in vivo environment. Nonpreconditioned HAAg and HAAgFn coatings suppressed bacterial colonization but were cytotoxic. After serum-preconditioning, more than 90% of fibroblasts that grew on all HAAg and HAAgFn coatings were viable. The highest silver content coatings tested (HAAg100 and HAAgFn100) resulted in a greater than 99% reduction in biofilm and planktonic bacterial numbers compared to HA and HAFn controls. Although HAAg100 had greater antibacterial activity than HAAgFn100, the findings of this study indicate that fibroblasts would win the race for the surface against S aureus on both HAAg100 and HAAgFn100 after serum-preconditioning.