Two fundamentals of mammalian defense in fungal infections: endothermy and innate antifungal immunity.

Polish journal of veterinary sciences

PubMedID: 25286672

Bieganska MJ. Two fundamentals of mammalian defense in fungal infections: endothermy and innate antifungal immunity. Pol J Vet Sci. 2014;17(3):555-67.
The environment of animals is inhabited by enormous fungal species, but only a few hundreds are pathogenic for mammals. Most of potentially pathogenic fungal species, excluding dermatophytes, seldom cause the disease in immunocompetent hosts. Data from literature indicate, that an immune system and endothermy are foundations for this mammalian relative resistance to fungal systemic infections. Stable and high temperature of the body restricts invasion and growth of potentially pathogenic fungi. Together with elevated metabolism it supports the effectiveness of mammalian immunity. The innate immunity is assigned to prevent the invasion of various microbes (including fungi) to the hosts' organism. It consists of cellular receptors and several humoral factors as the Antimicrobial Peptides. If the physical barriers fail in stopping the invader, it is recognized as "alien" by multiple Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) like Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) expressed by cells of innate immunity and/or C-type lectins. At the same time innate inflammation begins and the complement cascade is activated. These mechanisms are able to stop and clear some fungal infections. During existing infection the adaptive immunity is induced. This review aims to show the role of mammalian endothermy and to point the most important elements of innate antifungal immunity.