Chloroquine Promotes IL-17 Production by CD4+ T Cells via p38-Dependent IL-23 Release by Monocyte-Derived Langerhans-like Cells.

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

PubMedID: 25385822

Said A, Bock S, Lajqi T, Müller G, Weindl G. Chloroquine Promotes IL-17 Production by CD4+ T Cells via p38-Dependent IL-23 Release by Monocyte-Derived Langerhans-like Cells. J Immunol. 2014;.
Recent studies suggest a role for autophagy in the secretion of IL-1 cytokines regulating the development of inflammatory diseases. The antimalarial drug and autophagy/lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CHQ) is considered as potential trigger of drug-induced or drug-aggravated psoriasis, in which Th17 cells sustain a persistent inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of CHQ on human monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells (MoLC) and dendritic cells (MoDC) in response to IL-1ß. The presence of CHQ reduced IL-12p70 release in both subsets, but surprisingly increased IL-6 production in MoDC and IL-23 in MoLC. Importantly, CHQ-treated MoLC promoted IL-17A secretion by CD4(+) T cells and elevated RORC mRNA levels, whereas IFN-? release was reduced. The dysregulation of IL-12 family cytokines in MoLC and MoDC occurred at the transcriptional level. Similar effects were obtained with other late autophagy inhibitors, whereas PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine failed to increase IL-23 secretion. The modulated cytokine release was dependent on IL-1 cytokine activation and abrogated by a specific IL-1R antagonist. CHQ elevated expression of TNFR-associated factor 6, a common intermediate in IL-1R and TLR-dependent signaling. Accordingly, treatment with Pam3CSK4 and CHQ enhanced IL-23 release in MoLC and MoDC. CHQ inhibited autophagic flux, confirmed by increased LC3-II and p62 expression, and activated ERK, p38, and JNK MAPK, but only inhibition of p38 abrogated IL-23 release by MoLC. Thus, our findings indicate that CHQ modulates cytokine release in a p38-dependent manner, suggesting an essential role of Langerhans cells and dendritic cells in CHQ-provoked psoriasis, possibly by promoting Th17 immunity.